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Ampicillin

ANTIBIOTICS & ANTIINFECTIVES

PENICILLINS - [ ANTIBIOTICS & ANTIINFECTIVES ]

Ampicillin is an aminopenicillin and is bactericidal for both gram-positive and gram negative organisms. The bacteria susceptible to this drug includes meningococci, Listeria. Monocytogenes, enetrococci. Strains of bacteria which were highly susceptible earlier but turned resistant now include N. gonorrhoeae, E. coli, Pseudomonas mirabilis, Salmonella and Shigella. (1)

Mastoiditis Gynaecological infections Septicaemia Peritonitis Endocarditis Meningitis Cholecystitis Osteomyelitis; Respiratory tract infection (2)

Hypersensitivity to penicillin (2)

Nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea; Rashes, high fever (hypersensitivity or toxic response-may be serious reaction, discontinue treatment); Hpersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, serum sicknesslike reaction, haemolytic anaemia, interstitial nephritis Rarely antibiotic-associated colitis; Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders Sore tongue Asthma. (2)

Oral contraceptives: Reduced efficacy or failure of contraception and breakthrough bleeding Probenecid: Reduced renal tubular excretion and increased serum levels of ampicillin Allopurinol: Increased incidence of rash (1)

Caution exercised in pregnancy and lactation Dose reduction required in cases of renal impairment (2)

Oral Adult- 250 mg to 1g every 6 h at least 30 min before food. Urinary tract infection Adult-500 mg every 8 h. Children under 10 years- Half of adult dose. Intramuscular and intravenous injection or infusion 500 mg every 4 to 6 h. Listeria meningitis (in combination with antibiotics); by intravenous infusion 2g every 4h for 10 to 14 days. Child-Half of the adult dose. Listeria meningitis (in combination with antibiotics); infants 1 to 3 months; 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight every 6 h. 3 months to 12 years; 100 mg/kg body weight every 76 h (2)

1.William A, Petri JR. Penicillins, Cephalosporins and other Beta Lactam Antibiotics. In: Brunton L, Chabner B, Knollmann B eds. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics. 12th ed. China: McGraw Hill; 2011. P1477-1505. 2. National Formulary of India. 4 th ed. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. India: Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission; 2011.